10 Vocal Pedagogy Treatises before 1900

Observation of Florid Song - 1723 Italian, 1743 English

PIER FRANCESCO TOSI

- Most important treatise of the 18th Century because if was the first FULL treatise on singing.

- Tosi was a castrato who addressed his treatise to the soprano voice

- uses the terms "Voce di Petto" (Chest voice) and "Voce di Testa" (head voice)

- Tosi addresses registration as a concept, but never elaborated on it in his treatise.

Practical Reflections on the Figurative Art of Singing 1774

GIAMBATTISTA MANCINI

- Mancini was a Castrato

- Wrote about two registers: Head (Falsetto) and Chest

- Essentially fills in the details that Tosi left out of his treatise.

- Mancini did not specify how he would strengthen the weak register but spoke of the importance in uniting the two!

The Art of Singing 1857

CARLO BASSINI

- this was the most popular and important text on singing published in America.

- Bassini had a pedagogic heritage of Garcia.

- Emphasized registration

- The Art of Singing defines the art of Bel Canto singing, the best of Bel Canto 18th and 19th Centuries.

The School of Singing 1873

F.W. ROOT

- Student of Carlo Bassini

- Root believed that there was no point in studying the voice unless the studnet had certain basic musicianship skills in place.

- He encouraged teachers to follow a method, rather than a haphazard formula for each student.

The Mechanism of the Human Voice 1880

EMIL BEHNKE

- believed that exact scientific knowledge is necessary for singing.

- used X-Rays to study the lungs and muscles of the throat.

- researcher on speech and speech disorders

The Art of Singing according to Ancient Traditions and Personal Experience 1884

FRANCESCO LAMPERTI

- teaching based on oral tradition (contrast to Garcia)

- this meant "traditional" vocal terminology that lacked the physiological terms of Garcia.

- Lamperti method:

1. purity of tone

2. voice on the breath

3. emphasis on legato style

Art du Chant 1884

MATHILDE MARCHESI

- Studied with Manuel Garcia II

- vocal training at a slow and deliberate pace, believed in elementary vocal studies

- importance of technical and aesthetic nature of singing (fusion of Garcia and Lamperti)

- Importance of uniting registrations.

A Method of Singing 1884

JULIUS STOCKHAUSEN

- studied with Manuel Garcia II

- believes in three elements of singing:

1. Pitch

2. Power

3. Quality

- wrote about vocal articulations: Portamento, messa di voce, staccato, legato, martellato, tenuto, aspirato

Hints on Singing 1894

MANUEL GARCIA II

- this is the shortened version of "A complete treatise on the art of singing" which had two versions 1847/1872.

- Written in socratic style (Q&A)

- Clarifies Coup de la glotte

- Edited by his student Herman Klein.

- Contains vocalises

- Garcia would not explain technicalities that were not essential for good vocalization to his students.

Position and Action in Singing 1897

EDMOND J. MYER

- anti- Garia

- a proponent of the no effort school, which is in opposition to the "local effort school".

- felt false vocal folds resistance was an essential balancing factor to the breath pressure which powers the voice...... . . . . . . riiiiiight...

And there you have it. :-)

Name that Treatise without looking...

1723 Tosi

1774 Mancini

1857 Bassini

1873 Root

1880 Behnke

1884 x 3 authors: Marchesi, Lamperti, Stockhausen

1894 Garcia II

1897 Myer

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