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10 Vocal Pedagogy Treatises before 1900

March 13, 2017

 

 

 

Observation of Florid Song - 1723 Italian, 1743 English 

PIER FRANCESCO TOSI

- Most important treatise of the 18th Century because if was the first FULL treatise on singing. 

- Tosi was a castrato who addressed his treatise to the soprano voice 

- uses the terms "Voce di Petto" (Chest voice) and "Voce di Testa" (head voice) 

- Tosi addresses registration as a concept, but never elaborated on it in his treatise. 

 

 

 

Practical Reflections on the Figurative Art of Singing 1774

GIAMBATTISTA MANCINI 

- Mancini was a Castrato 

- Wrote about two registers: Head (Falsetto) and Chest

- Essentially fills in the details that Tosi left out of his treatise. 

- Mancini did not specify how he would strengthen the weak register but spoke of the importance in uniting the two! 

 

 

 

The Art of Singing 1857 

CARLO BASSINI 

- this was the most popular and important text on singing published in America. 

- Bassini had a pedagogic heritage of Garcia. 

- Emphasized registration 

- The Art of Singing  defines the art of Bel Canto singing, the best of Bel Canto 18th and 19th Centuries. 

 

 

 

The School of Singing 1873

F.W. ROOT 

Student of Carlo Bassini 

- Root believed that there was no point in studying the voice unless the studnet had certain basic   musicianship skills in place. 

- He encouraged teachers to follow a method, rather than a haphazard formula for each student. 

 

 

 

The Mechanism of the Human Voice 1880 

EMIL BEHNKE

- believed that exact scientific knowledge is necessary for singing. 

- used X-Rays to study the lungs and muscles of the throat. 

- researcher on speech and speech disorders

 

 

 

The Art of Singing according to Ancient Traditions and Personal Experience 1884

FRANCESCO LAMPERTI

-  teaching based on oral tradition (contrast to Garcia) 

- this meant "traditional" vocal terminology that lacked the physiological terms of Garcia. 

- Lamperti method:

             1. purity of tone

             2. voice on the breath 

             3. emphasis on legato style

 

 

 

Art du Chant 1884

MATHILDE MARCHESI 

- Studied with Manuel Garcia II

- vocal training at a slow and deliberate pace, believed in elementary vocal studies

- importance of technical and aesthetic nature of singing (fusion of Garcia and Lamperti) 

- Importance of uniting registrations. 

 

 

 

A Method of Singing 1884

JULIUS STOCKHAUSEN 

studied with Manuel Garcia II

- believes in three elements of singing:

               1. Pitch

               2. Power

               3. Quality  

- wrote about vocal articulations: Portamento, messa di voce, staccato, legato, martellato, tenuto, aspirato 

 

 

Hints on Singing 1894

MANUEL GARCIA II

- this is the shortened version of "A complete treatise on the art of singing" which had two versions 1847/1872. 

- Written in socratic style (Q&A) 

- Clarifies Coup de la glotte 

 Edited by his student Herman Klein.

- Contains vocalises

- Garcia would not explain technicalities that were not essential for good vocalization to his students.

 

 

 

Position and Action in Singing 1897

EDMOND J. MYER 

- anti- Garia

- a proponent of the no effort school, which is in opposition to the "local effort school". 

- felt false vocal folds resistance was an essential balancing factor to the breath pressure which powers the voice...... . . . . . . riiiiiight... 

 

 

 

And there you have it. :-) 

 

 

 

 

Name that Treatise without looking...

1723 Tosi

1774 Mancini

1857 Bassini

1873 Root 

1880 Behnke

1884 x 3 authors: Marchesi, Lamperti, Stockhausen

1894 Garcia II

1897 Myer

 

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